1797 – 1835

????? ????? ?????

1797 – 1835

1797

???? ????? ????? ?? ???????. ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????.

1818

??? ?????? ????? ???? ?? 20 ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? “????? ?????”. ???? ?? 16 ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? 10,000 ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??????.

1822

???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????. ????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????. ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????.
??????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????. ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????. ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???????? Duplex ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??? 1822 ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??????.

1830

??? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????? “????? ??????”? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??? “????? ?? ???” ?? 1905 ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???????.

1835

?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?????. ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? 1957.